The term "a bluestocking" is derived from the grey or blue color of men's wool stockings worn informally at social occasions, as opposed to the conventional white or black silk stockings of properly dressed men. 

In England around 1750, dame of society Elizabeth Montegu was having conversations & discussions of literature replace the parlor games played at most salons. Salons were (still are) gatherings where people socialized during pre-appointed hours at someone's home, generally mid-day, still formal but less so than dinner. She was inspired by the "Bas Bleu" salons in Paris, where women talked of books and all who had good manners and wit were appreciated & accepted regardless of their background. This format actually helped break down the stony surface of strict societal boundaries. For example, working people chatting with Ladies and Gentleman - this was not heard of. People were expected to stay in the proper places of class level. The story goes that a translator of the Latin botanist Linnaeus, Benjamin Stillingfleet, began attending the salons given by Montegu. He did not wear formal clothes and was accepted nonetheless. Since literature was a topic women were not believed to have valid opinion on and the men weren't properly dressed, they were all labeled "bluestockings" as a derogatory term & certainly not taken seriously.   

This English circle in the late 18th Century read the feminist author of the day, Mary Wollstonecraft. (The mother of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley who wrote "Frankenstein.") She was one of only a few authors promoting women's intellectualism. Another idea voiced among the bluestockings' was the abolishment of slavery. So here we have people who really aren't supposed to be socializing together, finding they agree on something: equality. They didn't do this as a protest/statement like we may think of it today but because it was exciting for society types to fraternize with actors and actresses: but by doing so, they began to see similarities! Joking & thinking interesting thoughts wasn't only for men or upper classes, all levels/kinds of people could be witty and polite.

The English bluestocking women were labeled prudish and over-serious since they downplayed their sexuality in order to be taken seriously. The word bluestocking thus evolved to mean pedantic, cold, over-educated woman. Presumably any education is too much if women were to focus on their real responsibilities - having babies and providing the home with order & cleanliness! By the mid/late 1840's, feminism was perfect territory for the press. One in the Daumier collection on this topic shows a woman working on her novel while her baby is drowning in a bucket behind her, but she does not stop to save it because she finishing a sentence! Culture, intelligence and learning in women were acceptable only so long as they served to reflect an enlarged image of the husband, lover, friend or brother. In return, works would be dedicated to the women who inspired, listened to or re-copied them. Women who extended their intellectual energy on their own works were hated. As Balzac wrote, "George Sand has created SANDISM...a form of sentimental leprosy which has ruined many women who, but for their aspirations to genius, could have been charming...the woman who succumbs to this disease...is what one might call a bluestocking of the heart" 

Even in early 20th century England, Helen Fletcher in her memoir "Bluestocking" recalls being told by her mother to "get her nose out of that book" or she'll "become a bluestocking like her aunt." 


There are also bluestockings found in Japan in the 1920s, and Redstockings in America - all in favor of being able to think what they want. 

And now there is Bluestocking Books San Diego, the Bas Bleu Bookseller by Post, Bluestockings in NYC, various online booksellers as well as other kinds of businesses are using this noun in their names. A local client of ours, originally from England, was pleasantly surprised to hear a British friend use the word in conversation simply meaning "oddball". Just as someone unfairly shamed can become a proud survivor, this word has gone from being a judgmental negative label to meaning "different" and a symbol of intellectual liberation and love of language.



Come as you are, think what you like


And who doesn't love some colorful socks?!?


The staff here @blusoxsd love reading, thinking, learning and sharing all of the above and we want to continue the true bookselling tradition while fostering these activities for all humans!!! :D


Check out the latest on our Bluestockings!

This blurb was written by Kris Nelson (owner & booknut here at Bluestocking Books, San Diego) with help from: 
- The Bluestocking Archive website. 
Human Words by Robert Hendrickson 
Liberated Women by Daumier, forward by Francoise Parturier 
The Joy of Conversation by Jaida N'ha Sandra 

Bluestocking by Helen Fletcher